English pronunciation explanation
Shang Chengwen was a native of Taiping County, Anhui Province. He and his family moved their residence to Lishui County. In 1938, he handled the confidential receiving and dispatching in the 2ndOffice of the Military Orders Department of the Chongqing National Government. As he supported the CPC’s anti-Japanese proposal and provided some important confidential information to the CPC South Bureau, he got accused of being a CPC spy and put into Xifeng Concentration Camp. He was killed by electric torture by spies in Sept 1947. After he collapsed, the spies wanted to make sure he was dead and used iron pickaxes to scoop his body.
Now please move on to the 3rdexhibition hall.
中共秘密支部(语气铿锵) Secret Branch of CPC
Wherever the spring wind blows, green wild grass grows. The communists led by Luo Shiwen and Che Yaoxian used their rich struggle experience over the years, and took advantage of the opportunity when Zhou Yanghao was advocating “prison reform”. By the end of 1941, the secret brach, with Luo Shiwen as secretary, and Che Yaoxian and Han Zidong as members, was born under special fighting environment. They first formulated four feasible guidelines of action, 1. Unite the fellow prisoners. 2. Demand to improve material amentities. 3. Fight for the right to reading books and newspapers. 4. Fight agaisnt traitors and try to get in touch with the CPC. As their fighting methods were so skillful, Zhou Yanghao’s deliberate attempt of ideological influence fell flat. Later in his confession, Zhou Yanghao had to admit that he conducted prison reform and created the monthly magazine Revival so as to unify the prisoners’ thinking under the thought of “one political party, one doctrine and one leader”, yet he didn’t achieve good effect due to being boycotted by the communits in prison.
This is a chart of the branch organization.
Speaking of the secret branch in prison, we must introduce two famous martyrs, Luo Shiwen and Che Yaoxian.
Luo Shiwen, a native of Weiyuan County, Sichuan, joined the Chinese Socialist Youth League in 1922, and changed to the CPC in July 1925. At the same time he was sent to Soviet Union for study. When he returned to China in 1928, the White Horror was in the most severe period. The CPC struggle had to move underground. Luo Shiwen successively served as secretary of the CPC Chuankang Special Committee and secretary of the CPC Sichuan Provincial Committee. After the Anti-Japanese United Front was established, CPC assigned him to be manager of Chengdu Office of the 18thGroup Army, and proprieter of Chengdu Branch of Xinhua Daily. In March 1940, he was arrested by big spy Kang Ze on the name of “provoking the rice-robbery incident”, and sent to Xifeng Concentration Camp. On the Dragon Boat Festival in 1944, Zhou Yanghao invited Luo Shiwen and Che Yaoxian to a delicious dinner in order to draw them over, yet Luo and Che sternly rejected him. Zhou Yanghao then asked spies to force them to the dinner by pointing guns at them. Zhou Yanghao proposed a toast, yet Luo Shiwen immediately stood up and said with anger, “The dinner today is very good, but it comes from your plunder of the people. We are not going to eat the people’s blood and sweat. You can have it all on your own.” Then he immediately turned around and left with Che Yaoxian, making Zhou Yanghao very embarrassed. Their rejection on the dinner was soon spread among the prisoners. The comrades all admired them. They established good image for the communists in prison, making the branch more unified and confident in fighting against the enemy.
Luo Shiwen was killed on August 18, 1946.
Before execution, he left his last words to the CPC on a piece of Russian paper.
Branch Member Che Yaoxian, native to Dayi, Sichuan, once served as a regimental commander in Sichuan Army. He joined the CPC in Oct 1928, and took different posts, such as member of the military commission of the CPC Chuankang Special Committee. For a long time he was engaged in underground struggle by running the “nulican” restaurant as disguise. It was because of his influence that heroine Zhang Luping stepped on the road of revolution. He was arrested with Luo Shiwen in March 1940, and sent to Xifeng Concentration Camp. In prison, he was promoted by Zhou Yanghao as a “work cultivator” to manage books in the reading room. He turned the reading room as a battlefield for fighting against the enemies, and put some progressive books among the newspapers and magazines for political offenders to read. The reading room became a meeting and associating spot for the political offenders. He even wrote hundreds of thousands of words of his Autobiography and the History of Sichuan Warlords. He was murdered along with Luo Shiwen in 1946. After liberation, they were buried together. Former Premier Zhou Enlai inscribed their tombstone in person.
Zhou Yanghao initiated the prison reform in order to alter the prisoners’ mindset. He set up the monthly Revival and Yangzheng Weekly, and selected some intellectuals from the prisoners to be editors. Zhou Kezheng, Song Qiyun, Han Zidong and others who didn’t expose their identity as communists were arranged to the editorial office to be editors. They skillfully used this position offered by the enemy to mobilize the communists in prison to write some works to publicize the CPC’s stand for resistance against Japanese aggression and expose the darkness of the society. Zhang Luping used the pseudonym Xiaolu to publish her famous poem “Pomegranate Flower in July” on the monthly Revival. These articles were published by Luo Shiwen, Zhao Ligeng and other communists. Every month, Zhou Yanghao would gather all the political prisoners to the auditorium to listen to his admonitory talk. He allowed the political prisoners to perform in the auditorium. Zhang Luping, Hou Renmin and other revolutionists skillfully used such a stage to perform some anti-Japanese dramas, such as “Sunrise”, “Woman Spy”, etc.
The BIS Telecommunication Main Station was located in the Yiai Temple under the Fotu Pass, the height of Chongqing. Numerous evil orders were sent out from there. Soon after the spring festival in 1940, the BIS noticed that some high-class confidential information was leaked every so often, but couldn’t find out why. A valve burnout accident plus the confession of the traitor An Wenyuan enabled Dai Li to find out that surprisingly there were actually 7 communists working in the BIS Telecommunication Main Station – the highest department in charge of confidential work in the BIS, the very heart of the BIS. Knowing this, Chiang Kai-shek furiously criticized Dai Li for being useless. That is the notorious “BIS Telecommunication Station Case” that shocked the upper class of the KMT at that time.
This is the manager of the 7 communists, Secretary Zhang Luping, originally named Yu Shuoqing. She was a frank Sichuan native. Under the influence of her parents since childhood, she was determined to be a Chinese with heroic integrity, just like Wen Tianxiang and Hua Mulan in ancient times. During middle school, she was influenced by her good friend’s father, Comrade Che Yaoxian, and joined the Chengdu Students Union and took charge of publicity and communication. Many times she waevd her fist on the streets of Chengdu and cried the slogan, “Beat down Japanese Imperialism”. She used real actions to protect the homeland’s dignity in her prime.
Later she made for Yan’an and changed her name to Li Lin. The prosperous revolutionary life in Yan’an excited her. She breathed in the air of freedom as a little bird out of cage starting her vigorous new life. After 3-month intensified training in North Shaanxi Public School, she moved to study in the Chinese People’s Anti-Japanese Military and Political College. In 1938, she joined the CPC. In 1939, sent by the Organization Department and the Department of Social Affairs of the Central Committee of the CPC, she had to leave her new husband Li Qing only several months after they got married, and went to Sichuan to work on the united front.
Because of work and the need of confusing the enemies, she dressed herself as a modern bourgeois girl: an elegant French little hat, long hair down on her shoulders, a coffee dress and brown little leather boots, an exquisite little leather suitcase, and a dazzling ring on her finger. Such an outfit made her even more elegant and charming, and totally stunned the enemy guards.
She returned to Sichuan to say goodbye to her parents, and went to the office of the CPC Central Committee South Bureau – No.50 Zhou’s Residence, Zengjiayan, Chongqing. Introduced by Comrade Ye Jianying, she formed an underground special branch with Feng Chuanqing and Zhang Weilin, both of who lurked in the enemy’s main telecommunication station. Zhang Luping served as secretary of the special branch. In order to better do the underground work, she considered herself to be Zhang Weilin’s sister. Till then, she formally changed her name to Zhang Luping. The “telecommunication station special branch” continuously sent intelligence to Yan’an, playing an important role in subduing the enemy’s first reactionary climax and avoiding spies attacking and damaging the underground organization. This secret telecommunication station was lke a ball of fire burning in the interior of the enemies, while Comrade Zhang Luping was like a sharp sword stabbing in the heart of the enemies.
Unfortunately, in March 1940, Comrade Zhang Weilin accidentally burnt down an electronic vacuum tube, which had their real identity exposed to the spies. They were put in jail. The cunning enemies wanted to get the bigger fish, releasing Comrade Zhang Luping as bait. When Zhang Luping passed by the CPC South Bureau, she could have stepped in the door and hugged her comrades, but she chose not to give a look at the door and speak to her comrades walking right to her, in order to protect the organization.
In March 1941, Comrade Zhang Luping and her comrades-in-arms were transferred to Xifeng Concentration Camp, in which she suffered torture unimaginable to ordinary people. Yet she was so strong and optimistic that she still took an active part in art performances.
Once, Zhou Yanghao called Zhang Luping to his office under the pretext of bringing her before the court, and attempted to molest her. Zhang Luping raised her hands which were tied up by chains to slap Zhou Yanghao twice and left. Zhou Yanghao was still unwilling to give up, and sent spies to induce her to capitulate and lure her by promise of gain. Zhang Luping grabbed the surrender note and tore it into pieces.
On July 14th, 1945, 7 comrades who had worked together met for the first time. They knew what this meeting meant. They sang The Internationale loudly on the van. Their song reverberated through mountains. When they arrived at the Kuaihuolin, 3 km away from Xifeng County, the secret police asked them to get off the van. They asked them to give a help to carry goods to Chongqing. When Zhang Luping got off the van and stepped on the stone stairs, the gunfire started. 6 of them died, and Zhang Luping was also shot on the right leg. She turned back seeing her comrades, and shouted to the killers, "Shoot me on the chest! Down with the KMT reactionaries! Down with Chiang Kai-shek! Long live the Communist Party of China!" Her voice was so loud that the secret police were frightened. At last, she got 6 shot and died only at the age of 24. In the dozens of years after they were killed, nobody knew them. Somebody even mistook them as secret police and traitors. They weren't recognized as martyrs until 1983 when Ye Jianying found evidences for them. The Party and government built a cemetery for the 7 revolutionary martyrs at the place where they were killed.
This is the scene of moving tombs for the martyrs in 1984.
These are relics left by the martyrs.
This is the scene that the 7 martyrs were killed.
When the CPC was striving to found the PRC, many excellent KMT members and democratic personages stood together and went through great hardship with the Party to strive for winning the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression. Next is the introduction to a KMT member--Yang Hucheng.
Yang Hucheng, from Pucheng, Shaanxi, had participated in the Revolution of 1911 in his early years. He once served as the commander in chief of the 17thRoute Army, chairman of Shaanxi provincial government, etc. Why was Yang Hucheng taken in custody by Chiang Kai-shek? Then we have to mention "the Xi'an Incident".
1936年12月12日，他联合张学良发动“西安事变”，逼蒋抗日，“西安事变”和平解决后，蒋介石背信弃义，解除兵权又迫令他出国考察，为顾全大局，杨虎城携夫人谢葆贞，幼子杨拯中忍辱出国。七 ·七事变爆发，杨虎城不听友人劝阻，毅然回到祖国参加抗日，他说：“发动双十二变的目的是为了抗日，现国内抗战军兴，如我仍寄身海外，实愧对同胞，致我回国之后，不管蒋如何对我，我绝不后悔，只要问心对得起国人，死何足惜”。他一到南昌就遭监禁， 1938年，杨虎城一家被转押到贵州息烽，囚禁在“和斋”，三个月后，戴笠来视察，发现“和斋”离川黔公路很近，不安全，于是把一家三口转押到距此14公里的玄天洞。
On December 12th, 1936, Yang Hucheng and Zhang Xueliang jointly launched "the Xi'an Incident" to force Chiang Kai-shek to fight against the Japanese invaders. After peaceful settlement of "the Xi'an Incident", Chiang Kai-shek broke faith with him. He removed Yang’s military power and forced him to make an investigation trip abroad. Considering the interests of the whole, Yang Hucheng took his wife Xie Baozhen and youngest son Yang Zhengzhong abroad. When the "July 7thIncident of 1937" broke out, regardless of friends' dissuasion, Yang Hucheng resolutely went back to China to take part in the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression. He said, "The reason why I launched the Xi'an Incident is to fight against Japanese invaders. Now the domestic anti-Japanese army rises. If I still stay abroad, I will feel ashamed to my compatriots. I won't be regretful no matter how Chiang may treat me after I come back. As long as I don't let my compatriots down, I won't feel frightened even if I am killed." When he arrived at Nanchang, he was taken into custody. In 1938, Yang Hucheng and his family members were sent to Xifeng, Guizhou, and imprisoned in "He Zhai". Three months later, Dai Li made an inspection there. He found that the Harmony Room was so close to Sichuan-Guizhou Road and felt that it was not safe. Therefore, he transferred Yang together with his wife and son to Xuantian Cave which was 14 km away from here.
Xuantian Cave was a natural karst cave, in which it was humid and without any sunshine all year round. It was very hard for Yang Hucheng to adapt to the life in the cave because he was used to the dry climate in the north. In addition, he was so depressed that he usually got sick in bed. When he just arrived in the Xuantian Cave, he got a bad temper. Whenever he met the head of secret agents, he would demand, “What crime on earth have I committed? Why am I locked up here for such a long time? I can't bear it anymore. Send my word to Chiang Kai-shek. Kill me or let me out to fight against the Japanese.” However, he was ignored. As time passed, he didn’t bother to say such things any more. At that time, there were more than 200 secret agents guarding General Yang and his family members. There were internal guards, middle guards and external guards. So it was impossible for Yang and his family to escape.
In 1941, his daughter was born. It was supposed to be a good thing but it only brought more worries to him and his wife. Xie Baozhen didn't have enough breast milk to feed the little girl. To feed the little girl, General Yang paid and got a wet nurse. As a saying goes, a child who has parents is regarded as a treasure, but a one without parents is pathetic. Seeing the two children at their side, General Yang and his wife missed their other children very much. One day, Mrs. Yang said to General, “We can get the newspaper, so that is to say the road is not blocked. But why is there no reply to my letters?”
Yang Hucheng sadly said to her, “Don’t write any more letters. Our letters have all been withheld by them.”
Hearing this, Mrs. Yang felt so sad that she ran into the room and cut her fingers with scissors. She was bleeding and then started to write with her blood. Whenever there was no blood, she cut herself again. She didn’t feel painful because she missed her children too much. At the moment, the wet nurse saw the blood and was shocked. She asked, "Mrs. Yang, what are you doing?"
"I am writing a letter with my blood."
"Why do you write it?"
"I want to send it home."
Mrs. Yang was going to cut her finger again. The wet nurse immediately came to the General. Seeing this, General Yang was very sad but he couldn't have any idea. Like a bird in a cage, he couldn't fly out.
Time slowly passed in great desperation. 8 years later, in 1945, the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression ended in a victory. Yang thought that the eight years in custody could pay back to Chiang Kai-shek for his being taken into custody in Xi'an for half a month. In addition, he had no reason to lock him up after the victory of the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression. Therefore, he was eager for being released. However, he only got an order of transfer. In 1946, he and his family were transferred to Chongqing and put in the secret jail at Yangjiashan. The eight years of waiting vanished like a bubble.
On September 6th, 1949, secret police killed Yang Hucheng, his youngest son and daughter with a dagger.
Xie Baozhen was a member of the CPC. She got intermittent insanity because of being tortured by secret police in prison. In the New Year's Eve of 1947, she was killed by a lethal injection only at the age of 36.
This is Yang Zhengzhong, General Yang's youngest son. Due to long time of custody in prison, he looked pale and thin, and his hair was grey, like an old man.
Because Yang Zhenggui, General Yang's daughter was born in the special environment, she didn't have a deadee.
Li Yingyi, General Zhang Xueliang's adjutant, was taken into custody together with Zhang Xueliang when they sent Chiang Kai-shek to Nanjing after "the Xi'an Incident". In 1942, they were imprisoned in Liuya Village, Kaiyang County, Guizhou. Because the Bureau of Investigation and Statistics believed that he was a Party member, he was transferred to Xifeng Concentration Camp. On November 27th, 1949, he was killed together with General Huang Xiansheng at Buyunqiao.
Zhang Xingmin was Yang Hucheng's personal bodyguard. After Yang Hucheng was taken into custody, he volunteered to escort Xie Baozhen to Nanchang to take care of Yang Hucheng and was then imprisoned. Later, he was transferred to Xifeng Concentration Camp. He was killed on November 24th, 1949.
Yan Jiming, from Luancheng County, Hebei, joined the CPC in 1924. Then he was sent by the Party to work as a Lieutenant Colonel adjutant at Yang Hucheng's side. He was arrested on January 14th, 1938 while escorting Xie Baozhen to Nanchang. Later, he was imprisoned in Xifeng Concentration Camp. On November 24th, 1949, he was killed on the Meiyuan Street, Chongqing.
Next is the introduction to Ma Yinchu, a patriotic democratic personage.
Ma Yinchu was a Chinese economist, educator, and demographer. In those years, he delivered speeches on public occasions to reveal that "The Four Families" got great benefits from the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression regardless of the national calamity. Then he was arrested and imprisoned secretly in Xifeng Concentration Camp. He was put in this detention room which was small, low and narrow. He even couldn't straight his back in it. He was kept in it all day long. There were four secret police watching over him outside. Although being tortured both physically and mentally, he never surrendered. On the contrary, he gave full play to his strong point of "saying something that people dare not to say".
After being in custody for 7 months, he was transferred to Shangrao Concentration Camp. Later, he was released. After liberation, he served as president of Zhejiang University and Beijing University. He died in 1982 at the age of 100.
Next please go downstairs to visit the Fourth Exhibition Hall.