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English pronunciation explanation


Faced with the cruelty and hypocrisy of the enemy, the communists and inmates in prison never backed down.


Chen Ce was a communist in the New Fourth Army. He was captured in the South Anhui Incident in Jan, 1941, and jailed in Shangrao Concentration Camp in Jiangxi Province. When the BIS people went there for “distinguishment”, they found out his identity as a CPC member, and then transferred him to Xifeng Concentration Camp. In prison, he and Xu Xiaoxuan revolted against the prison for practicing the rule of punishment, as “one person runs away, the whole cell is punished”. All the fellow sufferers supported them with response, gaining the success of having the rule abolished. Chen Ce was transferred to the prison in Chongqing in 1946. He was murdered by secret agents on Nov 27, 1949.


Here shows the poem of resistance,Murder before Dawn,written by Chen Ce in prison.


This is General Huang Xiansheng, the first hero of the Great Wall of Flesh and Blood. He was deputy commander of the 53rdarmy of the original Northeast Army, a high ranking officer of the KMT. As He Zizhen and Zhou Yanghao were lower than Huang Xiansheng in terms of milirary rank, they were somewhat in fear of him. Huang Xiansheng was also a secret communist introduced by Zhou Enlai. After the Xi’an Incident, he was set up by traitors and put into Xifeng Concentration Camp for rescuing Zhang Xueliang. In prison, he often told the inmates, “Even though we are here, we must maintain our aplomb and dignity and never give up. We are not afraid of them. We are making them afraid of us.” In prison, he played his role as a communist. In the beginning of the “prison reform” in Xifeng Concentration Camp, the CPC branch decided to raise three demands to the prison, including “no beating or abusing, and improving the prisoners’ food supply”, which were brought up to the authority by Huang Xiansheng and got approved.


The prison was about to implement the rule of one-cell associated punishment, and demanded the prisoners to fill in a form. Communist Chen Ce took the lead in resistance. Huang Xiansheng brought the form and kicked up a fuss in the prison director’s office, and stated straight to Zhou Yanghao, “I’m not gonna fill in this form, and I’m not gonna press my fingerprint. You can just keep us in jail for as long as you want!” Zhou Yanghao had no choice but to stop the implementation of one-cell associated punishment. In 1946, Huang Xiansheng was transferred to the prison in Chongqing. He was murdered by secret agents at Buyun Bridge, Chongqing on Nov 27, 1949.


These are the things that were used by Huang Xiansheng.


Here shows the clothes worn by Huang Xiansheng when he was murdered, which were stained by blood and bullet holes. After the Liberation War, instructed by Zhou Enlai, Huang Xiansheng’s body was moved to rest in Babaoshan Revolutionary Cemetery in Beijing.


This is Martyr Xu Xiaoxuan, prototype of the character Xu Yunfeng in the novel Red Crag. He was native to Jiangdu County, Jiangsu Province. He joined the CPC in 1938, and served as the head of the Department of Publicity of the Youth Committee of the East Sichuan Special Commission of the CPC, and a member of the new district committee of CPC in Chongqing. He was arrested and put into Xifeng Concentration Camp due to being betrayed in April 1940. As a core member of the secret branch in prison, he waged tit-for-tat struggle against the enemy along with his prison inmates. Every time in danger, he would encourage the others, “We must let the enemy know that our communists are unshakeable, especially in crucial moments!”

有一次,集中营主任周养浩想在“爱斋”前的两棵树上分别刻写“先忧后乐” 、“忠党爱国”两句话。意思是让“犯人”先受牢狱之苦,然后再为党国效忠为乐。对于“先忧后乐”,许晓轩有自己的理解,他认为,共产党人应该有先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐的牺牲精神,于是,他在这棵核桃树上刻下“先忧后乐”四个字后,故意踩倒梯子,从树上摔下来,跌断了手臂,以此拒刻“忠党爱国”四个字。对此,周养浩也无可奈何,只好叫人把这四个字刻在另一棵沙棠树上。

Once, Director Zhou Yanghao of the concentration camp wanted to have two sentences carved on the trees in front of the Love vegetation room: “misery before happiness” and “be loyal to the Party and love the country”. His idea was to make the criminals suffer in prison and then learn to be loyal to and happy for the Nationalist Party and the country. About such sentences, Xu Xiaoxuan had his own understanding. He believed that a communist must have the spirit of sacrifice, so he carved the sentence “misery before happiness” on the walnut tree, and deliberately fell from the ladder down to the ground and broke his arm as to resist on carving the other sentence that meant being loyal to the Nationalist Party. Zhou Yanghao could do nothing but to ask someone else to carve the other sentence on another tree.


In 1946, Xu Xiaoxuan was transferred to the prison in Chongqing. On Nov 27, 1949 right before Chongqing was liberated by the CPC, Chiang Kai-shek ordered to slaughter all the revolutionists in prison. Before the execution, Xu Xiaoxuan held high his hands and said goodbye to each of the inmates in every cell. He calmly said to them, “Please tell the Party, I did everything it taught me even in the last few minutes of my life. I hope our organization remembers to consolidate the Party and rectifiy incorrect styles of work, eliminate the non-prolitariat class consciousness and maintain the purity of the Party.” Later he walked to the execution ground in an unflappable manner. He criticized the enemy with disdain, “You sons of bitches will be executed too in just a few days! The people will punish all of you!” He died at the age of 33. The martyrs exchanged rational thinking with their blood. Their suggestion still is and will be of great significance to the construction of our Party.


After killing Xu Xiaoxuan, in order to cover their crime, the secret agents used concentrated sulfuric acid to burn the body and buried it on the site. Three days after Xu Xiaoxuan was killed, Chongqing was retaken by the people. When his body was dug up, it was already beyond all recognition. The Party and government buried the martyrs’ remains on the Gele Mountain covered by verdant pines and cypresses.


These pictures demonstrate Xu Xiaoxuan’s hard work and struggle.


Look, there is a little boy in this cell. He is looking out of the window. He is craving for the outside world and freedom, yet his whole life was spent behind bars. He is Song Zhenzhong, a boy who sacrificed his life at the age of 9. He is the well-known “little turnip head”. Why on earth would such a little child be jailed in the BIS’s hellhole? We should start with his father Song Qiyun.


Song Qiyun, native to Pixian, Jiangsu Province, joined the CPC in 1927. He was the secretary of General Yang Hucheng, and the former president and editor in chief of Northwest Culture Daily. He participated in drafting the “eight proposals” for resisting Japan and rescuing the country for Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng. In 1941, Chiang Kai-shek sent a direct order to arrest him by name. And later the secret agents trapped his wife Xu Linxia by sending clothes to her.


Xu Linxia, a CPC member, an unyielding and righteous woman, once cut one of her fingers to resist against the feudal marriage. When she was arrested, the “little turnip head” was still a baby and needed to be taken care of, so she brought him together. Who would know that he ended up being in prison for life? He only had one picture in his whole life – the one taken when he was 8 months old. Very cute, wasn’t he? Yet due to long-term undernutrition in prison, he grew up emaciated with sallow complexion as a boy with big head and small body. The inmates loved him so much that they affectionately called him “little turnip head”.


How did Little Turnip Head live and grow up in the cruel and harsh environment in prison?


Little Turnip Head had always been a good boy. His mother went to do sweated labour in exchange of some soy beans to feed him, yet he always let his mom eat first. He often collected some cloth strips and torn socks for his mom to make shoes. Since 5, he started to learn to sew clothes. He was old enough to go to school, so his mom demanded the prison staff to let him go out of prison to shool. But such a reasonable demand was flatly refused. As his father and other fellow prisoners strongly protested, the prison finally made a compromise: Little Turnip Head wasn’t allowed to get out, but he could study from General Huang Xiansheng and Comrade Luo Shiwen in prison.

就要上学了,“小萝卜头”的父亲就用树枝磨尖后给他做笔,母亲用破布烧焦后加水给他当墨,在这样的环境下“小萝卜头”学习非常刻苦,记忆力很强,也很懂礼貌,非常尊敬老师,并且在较短时间就能用俄语和黄显声进行简短对话,为了鼓励他,黄显声在孩子7岁生日的时候送给他一支红蓝色的铅笔,但“小萝卜头”一直舍不得用,平时也只在母亲面前写写画画,然后又将笔收藏起来。几年的监狱生活,使得“小萝卜头”懂得许多道理,国民党特务对共产党人的非人虐待、折磨,共产党人坚贞不屈、英勇斗争的精神都给他留下了深刻的印象,使他从小就知道谁是坏人,谁是好人。有一次,“小萝卜头”在牢房外面的院子玩耍,一个叫张家启的女特务抓了一把糖去逗他。“你只要叫我一声阿姨,满手的糖全部给你吃”, 大家可以想想!对于一个才几岁的孩子,这是一个多么大的诱惑力呀!但“小萝卜头”却咽着口水淡淡的说:“关屋子里的那种才叫阿姨,你不是、你是坏人”。说完后转身就跑回了牢房。母亲正坐在通铺上做着针线活,良久孩子喃喃的问到:“妈妈,糖到底是什么味道的?”母亲听到儿子突然冒出这句话,心里面很不是滋味,不知道该怎么回答他,正好她看见墙角摆放着一个盐罐子,于是就指着罐子说:“其实啊,糖就是这种味道的,没什么大不了!”(其实这句话也体现了一个母亲对儿子无奈的善意谎言)孩子听完后,撇撇嘴静静的依偎在了母亲的怀里。其实在监狱里他还经常帮助大人做秘密工作。由于他年龄小,特务对他看管不是很严,他就经常在牢房之间传递信息。每当大人商量事情,“小萝卜头”总是坐在门口放哨,他还帮助大人了解入狱同志的情况,而他所做的这些事,其实早已让他成为了“狱中支部”的小小交通员。

As he was about to study, little turnip head’s father sharpened tree branches to make him pencils, and his mom burnt some broken cloth and mixed water to make ink. Under such circumstances, little turnip head studied really hard, and showed strong memory. He was very polite and respectful to teachers, and only in a short time, he could use Russian to have simple conversations with Huang Xiansheng. In order to encourage him, Huang Xianshen gave him a red and blue pencil on his 7thbirthday. Little Turnip Head cherished it so much and rarely used it. Years of life in prison helped him understand a lot of things. The brutal and cold-blooded KMT spies and the faithful, unyielding and courageous communists left him deep impression, helping him to distinguish between the good and the bad. Once, Little Turnip Head was playing on the courtyard outside his cell. A woman spy named Zhang Jiaqi played with him with some candies, and said, “If you call me auntie, you can take all the candies.” You can imagine how tempting it was to a little boy! Yet Little Turnip Head lightly said, “Those behind bars are my aunties. You are not. You are bad.” Then he ran back to the cell. His mom was doing needlework. After a while, little turnip head mumbled to her, “Mom, what does candy taste like?” Hearing this, his mom was so sad that she didn’t know how to answer. She saw a salt pot at the wall corner, so she pointed at it and lied to him, “Actually, candy just taste like that; it’s nothing special.” Little Turnip Head then just shrugged and quietly snuggled upon his mom. He often helped adults to do secret tasks. As he was only several years old, the spies didn’t pay much attention to him. So he could help deliver information among the cells. Whenever the adults had discussions, he often sat outside and watched the door. He also helped the fellow prisoners to know about the newly arrested comrades. The things he did made him a little communicator for the communists in prison.


In 1946, Xifeng Concentration Camp was revoked. Little Turnip Head and his parents were transferred to Chongqing. After threes years in prison in Chongqing, they were cruelly killed in the guardroom of Daigong Temple on Sept 6, 1949. The spies buried their bodies under the hall of the house and covered them with a layer of cement. After the Liberation War, the spies who killed Little Turnip Head and his parents confessed their crimes to the government. When people found out where they were buried and tried to dig them out, every one couldn’t help shedding tears, because Little Turnip Head was still holding in his decayed hand the red-and-blue pencil, the one he got from General Huang Xiansheng on his 7thbirthday. He was only 9 years old when he died. After the Liberation War, he was posthumously recognized as the youngest revolutionary martyr of the PRC. His entire childhood was spent in prison, and he didn’t even get to taste a real candy in his whole life.


Martyr Tang Shenming, a native of Baxian, Chongqing, a communist, was engaged in long-term underground struggle with identities as salesclerk and staff member. He was betrayed and arrested in 1941, and later transferred to Xifeng Concentration Camp. On Nov 27, 1949, he was murdered.


Martyr Xuan Hao, a native of Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, once joined the “12.9” Patriotic Movement and went to the capital for petition. In order to seek for a path for serving the country, he was tricked by some ads and got into Xifeng Special Training Class by accident in 1939. When he found out that the class was for training spies, he refused to join the training and then was put in confinement. He escaped at night and tried to go to the New Fourth Army for shelter, and got lost and recaptured back in Xifeng Concentration Camp. He was killed in 1949.


Feng Hongshan, Li Zhongda, Chen Hezhen and Shi Zuosheng – the four young heroes were all native to Shandong Province. They all studied in the National 6thMiddle School in Mianyang County, Sichuan Province. In 1943, they went together to Chongqing to look for classmates and prepared to seek asylum in the liberated locations. Yet they accidentally strayed in the restricted zone of the Bai Mansion and got arrested as suspects of spy. Later they were all sent to Xifeng Concentration Camp. Though trapped in prison, Feng Hongshan and others still longed for making contributions to the construction of New China. Feng Hongshan even wrote a blueprint outline on hired railway construction. Unfortunately, they couldn’t fulfill their dreams. They were murdered at the same time in 1949.



Now you are looking at Wang Zhenhua and Li Jieshuang, who both worked for anti-Japanese propaganda in Guangxi, and later fell in love with each other. Wang Zhenhua was arrested in Chongqing in 1940, Li Jieshuang spared no effort in trying to rescue him, and they both ended up in jail. They were sent to Xifeng Concentration Camp in 1941. When they were transferred to Chongqing again in July 1946, as supported by fellow prisoners, they got married in prison and gave birth to two babies, Xiaohua and Youhua. On Nov 27, 1949, Wang Zhenhua, as a father, shouted to the spies, “My children are innocent. You can shoot more bullets on me if you want, just don’t hurt them!” However, the inhuman spies didn’t give a damn. After several gun shots, the couple and the two young babies in their arms all collapsed in their own blood.

The photo here is the only groupshot of the family of four in their lifetime.


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