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一展厅
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中文语音解说


English pronunciation explanation

抗战期间国民党在全国设立了三大集中营,分别是江西上饶集中营,重庆白公馆看守所,贵州息烽集中营,这个模型就是规模最大、级别最高、管理最严的息烽集中营全景沙盘模型。

During the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, the KMT established three major concentration camps around the country, namely Shangrao Concentration Camp in Jiangxi Province, Bai Mansion Detention Center in Chongqing, and Xifeng Concentration Camp in Guizhou Province. This model shows a panoramic view of the largest, highest-ranking and most strictly supervised Xifeng Concentration Camp.

“七.七”事变,中华民族全面抗战爆发。日寇大举进犯,大片国土沦陷。国民党仍坚持其“攘外必先安内”的反动政策,导致在正面战场上节节败退,国民政府被迫内迁重庆。

The Marco Polo Bridge Incident marked the overall eruption of the second Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese army rampantly intruded into the Chinese territory and seized a large area. Yet the KMT still insisted in the reactionary policy of “pacifying the internal situation before resisting foreign aggression”, which resulted in one failure after another on the frontline battlefields. The KMT government was forced to move to Chongqing from Nanjing.

在国难当头,民族危亡的紧要关头,中国共产党为了民族的抗战大业,经国共两党协议,把红军改编为国民革命军第八路军和新编第四军,开赴抗日前线。

At the critical moment concerning the nation’s survival, for the resistance against Japanese aggression, the CPC made an agreement of cooperation with the KMT, and recomposed the Red Army as the Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army of the National Revolutionary Army, and made for the frontline.

然而,在这中华民族生死存亡之际,国民党仍不忘坚持其法西斯统治。为了保证即使重庆沦陷,仍能指挥全国特务机关,他们在息烽设立了相当完整的第二套军统特务组织机构。当时全县人口才6万,县城人口不过两千的息烽,军统驻扎人数高达1.5万人,是县城人口的7倍多。息烽成了名符其实的军统第二巢穴,现已初步查明的驻息军统将官就有7个。

However, under such crucial circumstances, the KMT still insisted in its fascist rule. In order to make sure that it still could command the nationwide secret service even if Chongqing was occupied by the Japanese, the KMT set up a relatively integrated alternative secret service organization of the BIS in Xifeng. At that time, Xifeng County only had a population of 60,000, including 2,000 in the town, while the BIS deployed as many as 15,000 of its people to station in Xifeng, which was over 7 times more than the downtown population there. Xifeng became the veritable second den of the BIS

这是特务头子戴笠,本名戴春风,浙江江山人,1946年乘飞机失事摔死在南京戴山,之后被国民政府追认为中将,当年,他在息烽修建了公馆,经常来往于重庆、息烽之间。

This is Dai Li, the commander of the KMT spy agency. He was originally named Dai Chunfeng, and native to Jiangshan, Zhejiang Province. He died from an aircrush in Daishan, Nanjing in 1946, and later was honored the posthumous rank of lieutenant general by the national government. In the past, he built a mansion in Xifeng, and often travelled back and forth between Chongqing and Xifeng.

这些图片是当年军统驻息机构的遗址。

展柜里陈列的是当年驻息军统特务机关的物品,也是他们的罪证。

These photos show the site of the BIS organization in Xifeng in those years.

The showcases display some articles used by the BIS organization in Xifeng, which demonstrate its crime.

息烽集中营设立在贵州息烽县城南6公里的阳朗坝猫硐村,又被称为猫硐集中营。从1938年11月中旬设立,到1946年7月撤消,8年间先后共关押1200多人,其中屠杀和折磨致死600多人,400多人下落不明,幸存者不足100人。这样一个杀人魔窟对外挂牌却是“国民政府军事委员会息烽行辕”,内称“新监”。

Xifeng Concentration Camp is located in Maodong village of Yanglangba that is 6km to the south of Xifeng County in Guizhou Province, so it is also known as Maodong Concentration Camp. It was set up in middle November of 1938 and abolished in July 1946. During its existence of 8 years, more than 1,200 people were jailed here one after another, and over 600 were murdered or tortured to death, about 400 were missing, and less than 100 survived. Such a killer hell was actually proclaimed “Xifeng Office of the Military Commssion of the National Government”.

蒋介石叛变革命后,大肆屠杀和逮捕中共党人,抓了一些关入设在南京的军政部陆军监狱内的“监中之监”,后来迁入南京新监。抗战爆发,南京危急,蒋介石下令把南京新监关押人员迁武汉,后又转益阳。1938年10月南迁贵州,11月中旬到达息烽,设立了息烽集中营。

After Chiang Kai-shek betrayed revolution, he slaughtered and arrested CPC members, and put some of them into the prison inside the Army Prison of the Military-political Department in Nanjing. The second Sino-Japanese War errupted and Nanjing was in danger. Chiang Kai-shek ordered to transfer the prisoners in Nanjing new prison to Wushan and then Yiyang. In Oct 1938, they were moved southwards to Guizhou, and arrived in Xifeng in mid-Nov. Xifeng Concentration Camp was established then.

这是军统在西南地区设立的三个秘密监狱,重庆望龙门看守所被称为“小学”,白公馆看守所被称为“中学”,而这里因为规模最大、级别最高、管理最严、杀人最多,因此被称为“大学”。凡是送到这里“上大学”的大多是“案情”重大的政治要犯。从“小学”转“中学”转“大学”的被称为“升学”,处死的被称为“留学”。

这是息烽集中营旧址全景,占地80余亩,监房不称“监”而称为“斋”,有“忠、孝、仁、爱、信、义、和、平”加上“特斋”共九个监号。常年关押4至5百人,最多时达600多人。

这些是息烽集中营的部分被关押者名单。

这些是8个“斋房”及集中营设施的图片。

These are three secret prisons set up by the BIS in southwest China. The Wanglongmen Detention Center in Chongqing was referred to as “primary school”, the Bai Mansion Detention Center was called “middle school”, while here was called “university” as it was of the largest scale, highest ranking, most rigorous supervision and had the most people killed. Most of the people who were sent to here were important political criminals to the KMT. Being transferred from the primary school to the middle school and then the university was called “entering a higher school”, while being killed was called “studying abroad”.

This is the panoramic view of the former site of Xifeng Concentration Camp that covered an area of over 80 mu. The prison cells were referred to as “vegetarian rooms” with nine different names: loyalty, filial piety, mercy, love, trust, righteousness, harmony, peace and special. It usually contained 400 to 500 prisoners a year, sometimes even reached 600.

This is a name list of some of the people jailed in Xifeng Concentration Camp.

These are photos of 8 vegetarian rooms and facilities of the concentration camp.

为了保证万无一失,军统对集中营的武装警卫分三层。第一层由80余名尉官以上人员组成的便衣特务队,称为内卫;第二层由巡察中队和宪兵中队共近百人负责,称为中卫;外卫则是特务二团控制方圆几公里范围。真是戒备森严,鸟都飞不出去。

In order to ensure the security, the BIS divided the armed police of the concentration camp into three levels. The first level was “inner guards”, a plain-clothes special task group composed of about 80 officers above junior officers. The second level, medium guards, was composed of nearly 100 people of the patrol detachment and military police detachment. The “outer guards” were the special task second division which was in charge of a surrounding scope of several kilomenters. Even a bird would be hard to fly out of such a heavily guarded place.

这是大特务沈醉和集中营幸存者李任夫、苏文玉、韩子栋等对集中营管理的回忆。黄彤光回忆说:“凡送到集中营的人必须把现款、首饰、书信等缴出……集中营内不准互通姓名,只准喊编号……如有违规,轻者长期监禁,重者叛死刑……”,足见其残酷。

1946年,息烽集中营撤销。在杀一大批,放一小批后,转押重庆者仅72人。这72人大部分被杀害于1949年11·27大屠杀中,可以说,息烽集中营才是红岩精神的根。

息烽集中营第一任主任是军统少将何子桢,此人以“屠夫”著称。他采用的是中国封建时期的监狱封闭式管理办法,“犯人”关在牢房中每人睡的通铺都用尺子量过,一尺三寸,连翻身都难。一年365天吃喝拉撒都在里面,而牢房窗户用黑纸糊上,不透一丝光线。犯人长期不能理发洗澡,一个个蓬头垢面,惨不忍睹。“犯人”每天放风10至20分钟,还得关在院中木笼内。据韩子栋回忆说:对一些案情重的犯人,放风时关在小木笼内,小木笼和人身体一般大,人站在里面被紧箍着。有些站死在里面别人都不知道,因为死了仍然是站着的。

Here shows some memoirs about the administration of the concentration camp by the major secret agent Shen Zui and the survivors of the concentration camp, including Li Renfu, Su Wenyu, Han Zidong, etc. Huang Tonghua recalled that “whoever was sent to the concentration camp would have to hand out all the cash, jewelries, letters and other belongings… names were not allowed to be said in the camp; they only called us by numbers… whoever broke the rule would be either jailed for a long term or killed…” It serves to show the cruelty there.

Xifeng Concentration Camp was abolished in 1946. After killing a large number and releasing a small number, only 72 people were transferred to the prison in Chongqing. Most of the 72 people were murdered in the Nov.27 Massacre in 1949. It is safe to say that the spirit of Red Crag was rooted in Xifeng Concentration Camp.

The first director of Xifeng Concentration Camp was the BIS major general He Zizhen, who was widely known as a “butcher”. He adopted the feudal China closed prison administrative measures. Numerous prisoners slept on one wide bed, and each of them was limited to a tiny space that could hardly allow them to turn over when sleeping. They had to solve all the basic living needs in there. The cells’ windows were pasted with black paper without letting any light in. The prisoners couldn’t have haircut or bath at all and thus became too dirty and miserable to look at. They were given 10 to 20 minutes to go outside, but even then they would be locked up in wood cages in the yard. Based on Han Zidong’s memory, some important criminals would be shut in a tiny wood cage. The wood cage was only as big as a person’s body; standing inside, a person was as being tightly bound. Others wouldn’t know if they died as they died standing still.

不仅如此,“犯人”在肉体和精神上都遭到了百般的折磨。毒刑拷打更是家常便饭。当时用的酷刑就高达12种之多,这是图片资料,有灌辣椒水、钻刺指甲、电刑等,但这些不是最残酷的,最残酷的要数披麻戴孝,它就是把人的上衣拔光,用一根带满铁刺的木棒来回的抽打革命者的身体,直到打得皮开肉绽,血肉模糊后,撒上盐,再裹上一层麻布,等到十天半月再将麻布一层一层撕下来,这时候撕下来的不仅是麻布,而是活活的一层皮,受到这个刑法的人没有一个是幸存下来的。他们用刑的地方就是在这样一个洞里,呆会儿会在旧址向您做介绍。在这样的恶劣环境下,在这样的酷刑下,犯人生病得不到医治,天天有人死,有时一天要死好几个。有些连蒋介石和戴笠认为应该留着的也被折磨死了。这种情况连戴笠都觉得不能再继续下去,于是决定撤销何子桢,改派同乡周养浩接任息烽集中营主任。

What’s more, the criminals were tortured in every possible way both physically and psychologically. Brutal torture was just like a common meal. As many as 12 extreme torturing methods were used at that time, such as waterboarding with chili water, pricking finger nails, electric torture, etc. Here shows some relevant pictures. But these torturing methods were not the worst. The cruelest one was to rip off a criminal’s clothes, and beat him over and over with a club full of iron nails till his skin was split and flesh broke forth, and then spread salt on his body and wrap it with linen. After 10 days or half a month, the linen cloth stuck with the criminal’s skin was peeled off layer by layer. Nobody could survive after being tortured this way. They were tortured in a cave which will be introduced to you later. In such extreme environment with such inhumane torture, the criminals couldn’t get treatment even if they were sick. So people died every day, sometimes several criminals died in one day. Even some criminals who were wanted to be kept alive by Chiang Kai-shek and Dai Li were tortured to death. In the end, even Dai Li himself didn’t want such a situation to continue, so he fired He Zizhen and put his fellow townsman Zhou Yanghao to the office of director of Xifeng Concentration Camp.

周养浩原名周文豪,他毕业于上海法学院,上任后大搞“狱政革新”,“狱政革新”有两个内容,一是“监狱学校化”,他把“监房”改为“斋房”,“犯人”被称为“修养人”;二是“监狱劳动化”,他在狱中办了像“卷烟厂、肥皂厂、印刷厂”等这样的生产单位,逼迫“犯人”劳动,打的招牌是让“犯人”自给自足,实际上是榨取更多的劳动成果。周养浩的手段与何子桢管理时期相比,显得更隐蔽,更有欺骗性。其实性质是完全一样的。周养浩后来被关押于辽宁抚顺战犯管理所,1975年特赦,之后想回台湾和家人团聚,但遭到台湾当局拒绝,于是迁居美国,后来也死在了美国。

Zhou Yanghao, originally named Zhou Wenhao, graduated from Shanghai Law School. When in office, he vigorously promoted the “prison reform”. On the one hand, he turned the prison cells into “vegetarian rooms” and called the prisoners as “cultivated people”. On the other hand, he made the prison as a labouring place. He set up “cigarettes factory”, “soap factory”, “printing house” and other production units and forced the criminals to work. It seemed he wanted make the criminals self-sufficient, but in fact he was trying to extort more fruits of labour. Compared to He Zizhen’s management, Zhou Yanghao adopted more hidden and deceptive measures. But their managements shared the exact same nature. Zhou Yanghao was latered jailed in the War Criminals Control Station in Fushun, Liaoning Province, and was released on special pardon in 1975. He wanted to go to Taiwan to reunite with his family, but was rejected by the Taiwan authority. Then he moved to reside in the USA and later died there.

下面请上楼参观二展厅。

Please go upstairs to visit the second exhibition hall.



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